This article builds a conceptualization for the crossmodal effect of attention on preferences, predicting when and why an irrelevant auditory signal will facilitate or impair preferences for visually processed target products located in the direction of the signal. Extending perspectives on crossmodal attention, this conceptualization posits that the functional tendency to pay visual attention toward an auditory signal will translate to a facilitation effect on preferences. However, given a goal of signal avoidance, crossmodal functionality dictates a lowering of visual attention toward the signal, impairing preferences for targets in that direction. Finally, a two-stage model of involuntary and voluntary attention is invoked to reconcile opposing predictions: an aversive noise is held to produce initial facilitation because of an involuntary appraisal mechanism, before a more deliberative attention-allocation process produces impairment. Results from five experiments support these predictions, contributing to the literature on crossmodal information processing and also that on preference formation.
Place attachment is one's strong emotional bond with a specific location. While there are numerous studies on the topic, the literature pays little attention to commercial settings. This is because they are seen as too insipid to rouse attachment. Consumer research, however, suggests otherwise. To address this disparity, the authors investigate how consumers develop, experience, and act on place attachment in commercial settings. Findings from in-depth interviews and self-reports conducted in France reveal that place attachment develops through perceptions of familiarity, authenticity, and security and evolves into experiences of homeyness. Consumers find these encounters of homeyness extraordinary and respond by engaging in volunteering, over-reciprocation, and ambassadorship toward the place. The authors further theorize these findings through a gift economy perspective and identify a tripartite exchange between the consumer, the proprietor of the place, and selected people from the consumer's social network.
Across a series of studies conducted in both the field and the laboratory, the authors demonstrate that the presence of others (an entourage) alters a VIP's personal feelings of status. Specifically, VIPs feel higher levels of status when they are able to experience preferential treatment with an entourage, even if this results in the rewards associated with the treatment becoming less scarce. The effect is driven by an increase in feelings of connection with one's guests. Several alternative explanations for the entourage effect are ruled out, and implications for practice are discussed.
This article introduces time anthropomorphism: a tendency to imbue time with humanlike mental states (time has a will of its own). This tendency, which varies across individuals and may also be induced, changes patience (for standard over expedited shipping). Specifically, time anthropomorphism reduces patience for low-power (but not high-power) consumers because anthropomorphism makes the aversive force of wait time seem more potent (more aversive) to those who feel less potent themselves (low-power consumers). The authors verify the effect on patience and confirm the process via both mediation (the effect is mediated by how aversively time is perceived) and moderation (the effect reverses when time is made to seem beneficent). Thus, they introduce time as a consequential anthropomorphic entity, present novel effects on intertemporal preferences, and delineate a potency process for power.